Category: Leadership

gilgit baltistan

gilgit baltistan

Key Minister’s Secretariat

* I constituted a significant driven Committee below the chairmanship of Minister for KANA to prepare a reforms bundle for the intent.

* Below, I would like to point out that all important advancements ended up produced through the interval of PPP. The 1st visible administrative improvement arrived by the Northern Regions Council Lawful Framework Get 1974-75 by Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, wherein important administrative, judicial and political reforms ended up released and Jagirdari Nazam and FCR ended up abolished.

* Even more democratization was completed by the Northern Regions Lawful Framework Get, 1994 by Shaheed Mohtrama Benazir Bhutto so as to be certain much more inner autonomy to the people today of Northern Regions by their elected associates.

* Now the KANA Division has geared up a draft “ GILGIT-BALTISTAN (Empowerment and Self-Governance) Get 2009.

* The draft was discussed with all the stake holders and their sights ended up accordingly incorporated.

* Informal conversations ended up also held with members of the Northern Regions Legislative Assembly and leaders of public belief of the region.

* I also took the leadership of the important political events into self-assurance.

* The Gilgit-Baltistan Assembly will formulate its very own Rules of Processes though laws on many topics pertinent to governance will be completed by the Council and Assembly in their respective jurisdiction.

* Special conference of the Cabinet was convened currently to go over the New Northern Regions Governance Get named “Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self Governance Get -2009”.

* This will switch Northern Regions Governance Get, 1994.

* The new identify of Northern Regions of Pakistan shall be Gilgit-Baltistan as proposed below Short article-2(f).

* There shall be a Governor of Gilgit-Baltistan as proposed below Short article-20. and shall be appointed by the President of Pakistan.

* Until the election of the new legislative Assembly, Federal Minister for KANA will act as Governor.

* There will be a Main Minister of Gilgit-Baltistan who shall be elected by the Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly.

* The Main Minister shall be assisted by six Ministers.

* There shall be a provision of two advisors to the Main Minister.

* There shall be Legislative assembly possessing immediately elected 24 members. In addition there shall be six girls and 3 technocrats’ seats.

* Today’s decision will empower the Gilgit-Baltistan Council and Assembly to make laws. The issue below which the Assembly shall now have electric power to make regulation has greater from 49 to sixty one though the Council shall have 55 topics.

* In buy to empower the Council and the Assembly on economical matters, there shall be a Council Consolidated Fund below short article 54, and Gilgit-Baltistan Consolidated Fund below short article 55.

* With regards to yearly price range, a thorough item-smart price range shall be offered in advance of the Gilgit-Baltistan Assembly as it is remaining practiced in Pakistan and shall be accordingly voted on as instructed in short article fifty six.

* The Main Judge of Supreme Appellate Court shall be appointed by the Chairman of the Council on the Suggestions of the Governor and other Judges shall be appointed by the Chairman on the Suggestions of Governor just after trying to get sights of the Main Judge.

* The Main Judge and Judges of the Main Court shall be appointed by the Chairman of the Council on the suggestions of the Governor on the identical pattern as it is remaining practiced in AJ&K.

* Auditor Normal Gilgit-Baltistan to be appointed by the Governor on the suggestions of Council as the scenario in AJ&K.

* There shall be a Main Election Commissioner below short article-82 as effectively as Auditor Normal besides crisis provisions below short article-eighty three & 87 respectively.

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Apple Case Review-Business Level Approaches

Apple Inc has around the decades remaining making the most of frustrating general performance in the technology field, whereby it has shown marketplace leadership and excellence. The company’s early entrance in the technology field has been intently associated with its continued results and dominance. It is well worth noting that the company has almost never succeeded adhering to its early entrance in the marketplace but as a end result of efficient organizational management. It is notable that the business tactics adopted by the company have been the principal factors of its survival and results in the marketplace. This is apparent through the a lot of initiatives of new-marketplace disruptions among the its merchandise and providers. This has commonly impacted on its competitiveness, so contributing to results. The company has been acknowledged for achieving customers who were unavailable to its predecessors. This is majorly through intelligent marketing, simplicity of use, fantastic layout as perfectly as sensible distribution. As a end result of these attributes, the company has been ready to bring in and preserve a substantial selection of customers so boosting its results and sustainability. This paper will supply an express discussion and analysis of Apple Inc Business level tactics.

Identification and crucial analysis of the company’s existing tactics

With reference to the dynamics and competitiveness faced in the technology field, there has been just about every will need for the collaborating corporations to exhibit performance in their operations (Boddie 2005: 1). In this circumstance, Apple Inc has not been exempted, whereby it has extended proven business tactics that guideline its operations. The institution of sturdy company mission and vision has been a very important software providing mild to the business future (Rafter 2002: 1). This has motivated the management to occur up with tactics that will support in realization of the company’s vision. Apple business-level tactics have been targeted towards maximizing general performance.

Price tag management

Price tag leadership technique has been extremely adopted by Apple Inc in its endeavors of making sure competitiveness and results in the technology field. The company’s management has been ready to attract procedures and tactics that are aimed at making sure that the company is the lowest expense producer and distributor (Roth 2001: 24). By strategizing on expense performance, the results and sustainability of the company is increased. By lowering the expense of generation and management, Apple Inc has been specified golden prospects on pinpointing price ranges of its merchandise, so maximizing its aggressive edge. Reduced expense of generation and distribution has enabled the company to place aggressive price ranges on its merchandise as perfectly as maximizing its gross revenue margins (Bowerman and Wart 2011: sixty three). Some of the techniques adopted by the company in executing the expense leadership technique is through minimization of running costs, lowering distribution costs, restricted regulate on labor costs as perfectly as reduction of input costs.


The principle of differentiation has also been commonly adopted by Apple Inc in maximizing its competitiveness and profitability. This has been accomplished through planning and generation of special merchandise (Furrer 2010: 231). The features of ad have also been adopted in making sure merchandise differentiation from competitor merchandise. Despite that differentiation has been a lead to of bigger costs to the company it has enabled it to distinguish its merchandise and providers from those of rivals. It is well worth noting that differentiation has enabled the merchandise of Apple Inc to seem special, so fetching bigger markets (Ireland et al 2008: 124). Apple Inc has been considerably conscious about the enhanced costs adhering to the adoption of differentiation, so enabling it to preserve its competitiveness.

Target on unique marketplace niche

The target of Apple Inc on digital new music atmosphere has been a very important component of results and improvements. This technique of specializing and placing extra target on digital new music has reinforced the company’s competitiveness in the digital marketplace. Specialization in this merchandise line has been aiming at capturing the younger era. Unlike other corporations, the merchandise of Apple Inc have bee commonly targeted on the younger era as perfectly as the elite. This is considerably apparent through iMovie, iTunes as perfectly as the GarageBand. Target on these merchandise has influenced new improvements like the 18th-month-outdated new music enhancing program. Unlike rivals who are characterized by focus on broader selection of customers and merchandise, the company has been ready to greatly enhance differentiation and expense leadership. By so undertaking, the competitiveness and profitability of the company has been increased, so leading to its current results (Ireland et al 2008: 124).

Thought of business product redefinition

The business atmosphere has in the current earlier been undergoing remarkable modifications and revolutions. This is intently relevant with the features of globalization, liberalization of markets as perfectly as progression in technology. In regards to these developments, enhanced business activity has been witnessed, so leading to enhanced competitiveness (Lussier 2008: 51). In the circumstance of enhanced competitiveness in the technology field, Apple Inc has not been exempted so leading to declining general performance. Based on this insight, there has been just about every will need for the company to redefine its business product (Anderson and Phillips 2000: 34). This will not only ensure its survival but also enhance results and sustainability in the marketplace.

The potentials of Apple Inc have not been optimally exploited so inducing the will need for transform. Over the earlier 10 years, the company has not sufficiently resolved the will need for diversification (Brown 2010: 187). This is quite apparent through the restricted merchandise and providers dealt with by the company. Despite that restricted diversity of merchandise and providers enhances specialization and performance it is also a big risk to the balance of the company. This is in consideration to the speedy increase in competitiveness in the technology field. New corporations are displaying pursuits in the generation and distribution of pc merchandise and providers (Lussier 2008: 51).  This poses substantial force to Apple Inc, so contacting for the will need of redefinition of the business technique.

Need for growth

The company has not arrived at optimum general performance, so the will need to redefine its tactics to greatly enhance general performance. This will support in growing gains, sales, marketplace share, marketplace coverage, merchandise blend among the other marketplace and accounting variables (Hill and Jones 2009: 345).  Some of the tactics for maximizing growth involve improvement of marketplace penetration by making sure provision of efficient providers. Vertical integration is also an efficient technique for maximizing growth, whereby Apple Inc may take things to do performed by its suppliers or business in its channel of distribution. Diversification technique can also been an powerful move by the company to greatly enhance its growth. In this circumstance, the company may seem for likely business ventures to greatly enhance its operations (Hill and Jones 2009: 345). The company’s useful resource endowment presents it a chance of diversifying its operations so reinforcing its competitiveness.

Need for balance

With regards to the dynamics and competitiveness in the technology field, there is just about every will need for Apple Inc to redefine its tactics so as to reinforce its balance. This is an efficient technique in countering the forces of its rivals as perfectly as guaranteeing sustainable growth and development. The balance tactics are almost nothing new but fairly a continuation of the existing tactics. Some of the important things to do to undertake in executing these tactics involve restructuring of the management and organizational product. This is aimed at making sure sustainable and efficient management and leadership inside the group. Marketplace investigate and development is also a very important component in making sure balance, whereby the company will be ready to ensure marketplace orientation (Gibbert 2010: 124).

Source by Forest



*Shanmukha Rao. Padala  **Dr. N. V.S. Suryanarayana


            The leveraging of a firm’s internal resources, capabilities and core competencies to accomplish the firm’s vision, mission and objectives in a competitive environment is ‘Strategic Intent’. It is about winning competition battles and gaining leadership position by putting organizational resources to best use. When established effectively, a strategic intent can cause people to turn out excellent performance. Strategic intent is said to exist when  all employees and levels of a firm are committed to the pursuit of a specific but significant performance target. The intent can take the form of a broad vision or mission statement or a more focused route covering specific objectives and goals. In a way, thus, strategic intent tries to establish the parameters that shape the values, motives and actions of people throughout their organization.

            Based on the Strategic Intent is the organizations provide products and services for consumers, profits for investors, jobs for employees, taxes for governments, and economic stability for the communities. Strategic intent also identifies the commitment of the oraganisation to contribute to the welfare of society by setting standards on being economically productive and socially responsible. The goals identified through the strategic intent of the organization represent a synthesis and demands placed on the organization by its stakeholders these choices, collectively, set apart the organization from others.

            The most important characteristics of successful organizations are their clarity of purpose, adherence to their core values, their distinct identity and their vision of the organization. In practice there will always be limits on the range of possible choices. Small enterprises tend to be limited by their resources, whereas large enterprises may find their range of choice limited because it is difficult to change quickly and therefore, they tend to be constrained by their past. In the public sector, strategic choices may be made at a political level and the role of the manager may be limited to devising best to implement strategies rather than on fundamental choices of future direction. Wherever may be the limitations on choices, organizations have to co-exist in competitive markets by contributing to economic progress by creating new value to society, each organization doing so in its own way.

            Strategic analysis, strategic choice and strategy implementation are the three parts of the Strategic Management. Strategic choice is concerned with decisions about the organisation’s future and the way it needs to respond to the influences and impacts identified in strategic analysis. Choice becomes an idle exercise if the strategy is not properly implemented. These three divisions, therefore, form a closed loop in which the tail and the head are often indistinguishable.

            We will generally follow the conventional framework based on these divisions. However, for pedagogical simplicity, in this chapter, we will begin our foray into hard-core strategic management by discussing strategic intent- through strategic intent is considered to be a past of strategic choice. We will start with the vision, mission and objectives as well as value statements. These concepts are at the core of the strategy of managements. If different organizations do not have differences in their vision and goals, there is going to be significant difference between organizations.


            We will discuss these parameters as a hierarchy of strategic intent. The hierarchy of strategic intent includes the following elements.

  • A broad vision of what the organization should be.
  • The organization’s mission
  • The strategic objectives  and specific goals to be pursued relentlessly
  • The plans that are developed to accomplish the intentions of management in a concrete way.

The elements of the hierarchy specify the pious intentions, lofty ideals and clear-cut ideas that serve to unify the energy and forces scattered throughout an organization. They are beginning points for any formal planning process, but they also provide the sense of direction necessary to assure that incremental behaviour culminates in overall progress. Strategic intent is said to have expressed effectively when people believe fervently in their products and industry and when they are focused totally on their firm’s ability to outperform its competitors.


            Aspirations, expressed as strategic intent, should lead to an end; otherwise they would just be castles in the air. That end is the vision of an organization or an individual. It is what the firm or a person would ultimately like to become. For instance, some of you, say in 10 years, or may be even earlier, would like to become general managers managing an SBU in a large, diversified multinational corporation. Or some others among you would like to believe that you will be an entrepreneur in 10-15 years owning your own company dealing with IT services and employing cutting-edge technology to serve a global clientele. A firm thinks like that too.

            Witness what Tata Steel sys about its vision: ‘Tata Steel enters the new millennium with the confidence of a learning, knowledge-based and happy organization. We will establish ourselves as a supplier of choice by delighting our customers with our service and our products. In the coming decade, we will become the most cost competitive steel plant and so serve the community and the nation’. A vision, therefore, articulates the position that a firm would like to attain in the distant future. Seen from this perspective, the vision encapsulates the basic strategic intent.

Understanding Vision:

            A vision is more dreamt of than it is articulated. This is the reason why it is difficult to say what vision an organization has. Sometimes it is not even evident to the entrepreneur who usually thinks of the vision. By its nature, it could be as hazy and vague as a dream that one experienced the previous night and is not recall perfectly in broad daylight. Yet it is a powerful motivator to action. And it is from the actions that a vision could often be derived. Henry Ford wished to democratize the automobile when the visualized that an affordable vehicle could be available for the masses. Walt Disney probably wanted to make people happy.

            Vision is what keeps the organization moving forward. Vision is the motivator in an organization. It needs to be meaningful with a long term perspective so that it can motivate people even when the organization is facing discouraging odds.

            The world over, backwards and forwards in history, just one thing has fired the imaginations of the people: a vision of future that promises to right today’s wrongs, a graphic image of a time when injustice, impoverishment will have disappeared. Moses used the vision of a land mark of milk and honey to motivate his people to set off for the promised land. Indian’s freedom fighters used the vision of a country free of its colonial rulers to wrest independence. In the corporate context, vision refers to an inspirational picture of a future that can be created, offering clarity amidst confusion, hope against despair, and unity of purpose amidst diversity of personal causes.

Defining Vision:

Vision has been defined in several different ways.

  1. Kotter defines it as a “description of somethings (an organization, corporate culture, a business, a technology, an activity) in the future”.
  2. El-Namaki considers it as a “mental perception of the kind of environment an individual, or an organization, aspires to create within a broad time horizon and the underlying conditions for the actualization of this perception”.
  3. Miller and Dess view it simply as the “category of intentions that are broad, all inclusive, and forward thinking”.

The common strand of thought evident in these definitions and several others available in strategic management literature relates to ‘vision’ being future aspirations that lead to an inspiration to be the best in one’s field of activity.


  1. Vision is developed through sharing across an organization: Famous stories of successful vision involve visions that have been widely shared across entire organizations. Of course, an individual leader, often a founder has a powerful impact on the others.
  2. Methods of convincing the others about vision: The leaders by working hard along with others convince the others in the organizations rather than simply by delivering speeches.
  3. Change Agents: Leaders must recognize the complexity of changing an outmoded vision to reflect new realities. Organizations must redefine themselves through updated visions of the future through new objectives and strategies.


            Parikh and Neubauer point out that several benefits accruing to an organization having a vision. Here is what they say:

  • Good visions are inspiring and exhilarating.
  • Visions represent a discontinuity, a step function and a jump ahead so that the company knows what it is to be.
  • Good visions help in the creation of a common identity and a shared sense of purpose.
  • Good visions are competitive, original and unique. They make sense in the marketplace as they are practical.
  • Good visions foster risk-taking and experimentation.
  • Good visions foster long-term thinking.
  • Good visions represent integrity, they are truly genuine and can be used for the benefit of people.


            When you begin the process of strategic planning, visioning comes first. Martin Luther King, Jr. said, “I have a dream,” and what followed was a vision that changed a nation. That famous speech is a dramatic example of the power that can be generated by a compelling vision of the future. A vision is a guide to implementing strategy. Visions are about feelings, beliefs, emotions and pictures.

            A vision statement answers the question, “What will success look like?” The pursuit of this image of success is what motivates people to work together. It is an important requirement for building a strong foundation. When all the employees are committed to the firm’s visions and goals, optimum choices on business decisions are more likely.

            When visioning the change, ask yourself, “what is our preferred future?” Your vision must be encompassed by your beliefs.

  • Your beliefs must meet your organizational goals as well as community goals.
  • Your beliefs are a statement of your values.
  • Your beliefs are a public/visible declaration of your expected outcomes.
  • Your beliefs must be precise and practical.
  • Your beliefs will guide the actions of all involved.
  • Your beliefs reflect the knowledge, philosophy, and actions of all.
  • Your beliefs are a key component of strategic planning.

The process and outcomes of visioning is to develop an effectivce basis for business strategy. The foresight of the organization is to fit the strengths of the organization with the demands, to make the organization highly competitive with growth and profits as the rewards. The long-term benefits are substantial, because Visioning:

  • Break you out of boundary thinking.
  • Provides continuity and avoids the stutter effect of planning fit and starts.
  • Identifies direction and purpose.
  • Alerts stakeholders to needed change.
  • Promotes interest and commitment.
  • Promotes laser-like focus.
  • Encourages openness to unique and creative solutions.
  • Encourages and builds confidence.
  • Builds loyalty through involvement (ownership).
  • Results in efficiency and productivity.


            The vision statement should be build around certain core values. Thus, Sony’s vision rests on the values of encouraging individual creativity and its determination to be a pioneer. Such core values reflect how you want your future to look, the timeless principles to be followed while running the show- irrespective of what happens in and around the organization. Values, thus, are the essential glue of vision. Since a company’s different business may need to operate with different strategies, it’s their shared values that will prevent them from going in different directions. The vision statement should also spell out the core purpose of an organization very clearly. For example, we know that 3M’s purpose is to solve problems innovatively; Nike wants to provide the experience and emotion of competition – winning and crushing competitors; Blue Star wants to provide world class engineering products and services. Unstructured inputs could be taken from everyone developing the corporate vision. Companies like Larsen & Toubro, Crompton Greaves, Gujarat Heavy Chemicals typically follow certain steps in this regard:

  1. Elicit ideas from employees as to how their dream organization should be like in terms of characteristics;
  2. Combine these with the